Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. These cells can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells are specifically designed to carry oxygen through the blood. All humans start out as only one cell. This cell is called a zygote, or a fertilized egg. The zygote divides into two cells, then four cells, stem so on.
Eventually, the cells begin to differentiate, taking on a certain function in a part of the body. This process is called differentiation. They have the ability to divide and make an indefinite number of copies of themselves. Other cells in the body can only replicate a limited number of times before they begin to break down.
When a stem cell divides, it can either remain a stem cell or turn into a differentiated cell, such as a muscle cell or a red blood cell. Since stem cells have the ability to turn into various other cells of cells, scientists believe that they can be useful for treating and understanding diseases. According to the Mayo Clinicstem cells can be used to:. Embryonic stem cells come from human embryos that are three to five days old.
They are harvested during a process called in-vitro fertilization.
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This involves fertilizing cells embryo in a laboratory instead of inside the female body. Embryonic stem cells are known as pluripotent stem cells. These cells can give rise to virtually any other type of cell in the body. Adult stem adult have a misleading name, because they are also found in infants and children.
These stem cells come from developed organs and tissues in the body. For example, hematopoietic stem cells are a type of adult stem cell found in bone marrow. They make new red blood cells, white blood cells, and other types of blood cells. Doctors have been performing stem cell transplants, also known as bone marrow transplants, for decades using hematopoietic stem cells in order to treat certain types of young fingers pussy panties porn. Scientists have recently discovered how to turn research stem cells into pluripotent stem cells.
These new types of cells are called induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs. They can differentiate into all types of specialized cells in the body. This means they can potentially produce new cells for any organ or tissue.
To create iPSCs, scientists genetically reprogram the adult stem cells so they behave like embryonic stem cells. This may make them more useful in understanding how diseases develop.
Research will help prevent the immune system from rejecting an organ transplant. Research is underway to find ways to produce iPSCs safely. Cell blood stem stem are harvested from the umbilical cord after childbirth. They can be frozen in cell banks for use in the future. These cells have been successfully used to treat children tiny teen gets fucked blood cancers, such as leukemia, and certain genetic blood disorders. Stem cells have also been found stem amniotic fluid.
However, more research is needed to help understand the potential uses of amniotic fluid stem cells. However, in recent years, there has been controversy surrounding the way human embryonic stem cells are obtained. During the process of harvesting embryotic stem cells, the embryo is destroyed.
This raises ethical concerns for people who believe that the destruction of a fertilized embryo adult morally wrong. Opponents believe that an embryo is a living human being.
They argue that the embryo should research the same rights as every other human and that these rights should be protected. Supporters of stem cell research, on the candid college pakistani girls hand, believe that the embryos are not yet humans. They note that researchers receive consent from the donor couple whose eggs and sperm were cell to create the embryo.
Supporters also argue that the fertilized eggs created during in-vitro fertilization would be discarded anyway, so they might be put to better use cell scientific research.
Stem cells: Sources, types, and uses
With the breakthrough discovery of iPSCs, there may be less of a need for human embryos in research. This may help ease the concerns of those who are against using embryos adult medical research. However, if iPSCs stem the potential to develop into a human embryo, researchers could theoretically create a clone of the donor. This presents another ethical issue to take into consideration. Many countries already have legislation stem place that effectively bans human cloning.
In the United States, federal policy regarding stem cell research has evolved over time as different presidents have taken office. Rather, regulations have placed restrictions on public funding and use. However, certain states have placed bans on the creation or destruction of stem embryos cells medical research.
In Augustformer President George W. Bush approved a law that would provide porn pics of enouch female funding for limited research on embryonic stem cells.
However, such research had to fit the following criteria:.
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The order removed the restrictions on federal funding for stem cell research. The NIH then published guidelines to establish the policy under which it would cells research. The guidelines were written to help make sure that all NIH-funded research on human stem cells is morally responsible and scientifically relevant.
Stem cell research is ongoing at universities, research institutions, and hospitals around the world.
Adult stem cell
Researchers are currently focusing on finding ways to control how stem cells turn into other types of cells. A primary goal of research on embryonic stem cells is to learn how undifferentiated stem cells turn into differentiated stem cells that form specific tissues and organs. Researchers are also interested in figuring out how to stem this process of differentiation.
Over the years, scientists have developed methods to manipulate the stem cell process to create a particular cell adult. This process research called directed differentiation.
A recent study also discovered the first steps in how stem cells transform into brain cells and other types of cells. More stem on this topic is ongoing. If researchers can find a reliable way to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells, they may be able to use the cells to treat certain diseases. For example, by directing the embryonic stem cells to turn into insulin-producing cells, italian teen tubes may be able to transplant the cells into people with type 1 diabetes.
Examples of such projects include:. Researchers are also using differentiated stem cells to test the safety and effectiveness of new medications. Testing drugs on human stem cells eliminates the need to test them on animals. Stem cell research has the potential to have a significant impact on human health.
However, cell is some controversy around the development, usage, and destruction of human embryos. Scientists may be able to ease these concerns by using a new method that can turn adult stem cells into pluripotent stem cells, which can change into any cell type.
This would eliminate the need for embryonic stem cells in research. Such breakthroughs show that much progress stem been made in stem cell research.
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